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Keywords:

  • aggregation inhibitors;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • amyloids;
  • neurodegeneration;
  • Tau protein

Abstract

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Small molecules against Alzheimer's: The pathological aggregation of the tau protein is a major hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is a potential therapeutic strategy that is currently undergoing clinical trials. The image shows pathological fibers assembled from tau protein, which are the main components of the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease.

A variety of human diseases are suspected to be directly linked to protein misfolding. Highly organized protein aggregates, called amyloid fibrils, and aggregation intermediates are observed; these are considered to be mediators of cellular toxicity and thus attract a great deal of attention from investigators. Neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease account for a major part of these protein misfolding diseases. The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of interest in inhibitors of tau aggregation as potential disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease and other “tauopathies”. The recent report of a phase II clinical trial with the tau aggregation inhibitor MTC could hold promise for the validation of the concept. This Review summarizes the available data concerning small-molecule inhibitors of tau aggregation from a medicinal chemistry point of view.