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Keywords:

  • amphiphiles;
  • biosensors;
  • ion transport;
  • membranes;
  • steroids
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Off-the-shelf, prêt-à-porter multianalyte sensing systems are based on the ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs; see picture, blue) to mediate the export of hydrophilic anions (yellow[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]green) from lipid bilayer vesicles (gray). Covalent capture of hydrophobic analytes (black) with hydrophilic anions (red) produces amphiphilic anions that can activate CPPs.