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Keywords:

  • cyanines;
  • fluorescence;
  • hydrocyanines;
  • reactive oxygen species;
  • superoxide
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Accurate and tunable: The title compounds can detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell culture, tissue explants, and for the first time in vivo. The hydrocyanines are synthesized by reduction of the cyanine dyes with NaBH4. They can accurately detect nanomolar levels of ROS, have excellent stability against autoxidation, and have tunable emission wavelengths in the range 560–830 nm.