Inorganic enzyme? Ceria nanoparticles exhibit unique oxidase-like activity at acidic pH values. These redox catalysts can be used in immunoassays (ELISA) when modified with targeting ligands (see picture; light blue and yellow structures are nanoparticles with attached ligands). This modification allows both for binding and for detection by the catalytic oxidation of sensitive colorimetric dyes (e.g. TMB).