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Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of the Reduction Behavior of a Single Catalyst Particle

Authors

  • Emiel de Smit,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands), Fax: (+31) 30-251-1027
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  • Ingmar Swart Dr.,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands), Fax: (+31) 30-251-1027
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  • J. Fredrik Creemer Dr.,

    1. DIMES-ECTM, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5053, 2600 GB Delft (The Netherlands)
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  • Chithra Karunakaran Dr.,

    1. Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)
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  • Drew Bertwistle,

    1. Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)
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  • Henny W. Zandbergen Prof. Dr.,

    1. Kavli Institute of NanoScience, National Centre for High Resolution Electron Microscopy, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5053, 2600 GB Delft (The Netherlands)
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  • Frank M. F. de Groot Dr.,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands), Fax: (+31) 30-251-1027
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  • Bert M. Weckhuysen Prof. Dr.

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands), Fax: (+31) 30-251-1027
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  • Financial support is acknowledged from the Dutch National Science Foundation (CW-NWO/VICI program) (F.M.F.d.G. and B.M.W.), The Netherlands Research School Combination on Catalysis (NRSC-C) (B.M.W.), Shell Global Solutions (B.M.W.) and NIMIC (H.W.Z). The nanoreactors were fabricated at the DIMES ICP-group and the Nanofacility of TU Delft. G. H. Hoveling and P. J. Kooyman of TU Delft are acknowledged for technical support and discussions, respectively. The research was performed at the Canadian Light Source (CLS), which is supported by NSERC, NRC, CIHR, and the University of Saskatchewan. The CLS-SM beamline and STXM were developed by K. Kaznatcheev (CLSI) with the assistance of A. P. Hitchcock.

Abstract

A closer look: Investigation of the reduction properties of a single Fischer–Tropsch catalyst particle, using in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with spatial resolution of 35 nm, reveals a heterogeneous distribution of Fe0, Fe2+, and Fe3+ species. Regions of different reduction properties are defined and explained on the basis of local chemical interactions and catalyst morphology.

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