Unraveling of all of the information contained in proteomes poses a tremendous chemical challenge, which is balanced by the promise of potentially transformational knowledge. Mass spectrometry offers an unprecedented arsenal of tools for diverse proteomic investigations. Recently, it was demonstrated that ultraviolet light can be utilized to initiate unique and potentially useful fragmentations in peptides and proteins. Either nonspecific dissociation or highly specific dissociation at engineered chromophoric sites is possible following photon absorption. The level of specificity and control over fragmentation in these experiments is greater than with other fragmentation methods. Novel techniques made possible by this technology are poised to make substantial contributions to the field of proteomics.