Supramolecular Stacking of Doxorubicin on Carbon Nanotubes for In Vivo Cancer Therapy


  • This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)–National Cancer Institution (NCI) grants R01 CA135109-01 (H.D.), 1R01 CA89305-01A1 (D.W.F.), 3R01 CA89305-0351 (D.W.F.), 1R01 CA105102 Lymphoma Program Project (D.W.F.), NIH-NCI In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging Center Grant P50 (D.W.F.), NIH–NCI Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence Focused on Therapeutic Response at Stanford (H.D.), Burroughs Wellcome Fund (D.W.F.), the Damon Runyon Foundation (D.W.F.), the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (D.W.F., A.C.F.), a Stanford Bio-X Initiative Grant (H.D., D.W.F.), an Enscyse grant (H.D.), and a Stanford Graduate Fellowship (Z.L.).


original image

The evidence is stacking up: Many therapeutic advantages such as prolonged circulation in the blood, increased tumor drug uptake, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, and markedly reduced toxic side effects are provided by a carbon nanotube based chemotherapeutic formulation (see picture). In this system, doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded onto the sidewalls of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes by supramolecular π–π stacking.