Phosphoramidites: Privileged Ligands in Asymmetric Catalysis



Asymmetric catalysis with transition-metal complexes is the basis for a vast array of stereoselective transformations and has changed the face of modern synthetic chemistry. Key to this success has been the design of chiral ligands to control the regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Phosphoramidites have emerged as a highly versatile and readily accessible class of chiral ligands. Their modular structure enables the formation of ligand libraries and easy fine-tuning for a specific catalytic reaction. Phosphoramidites frequently show exceptional levels of stereocontrol, and their monodentate nature is essential in combinatorial catalysis, where a ligand-mixture approach is used. In this Review, recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with phosphoramidites used as ligands are discussed, with a focus on the formation of carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bonds.