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Expanded Genetic Alphabets in the Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • This work was supported by the US National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (R01M081527), the National Human Genome Research Institute (for the bioinformatics portion; R01HG004647), and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (through its program in basic research, HDTRA1-08-1-0052).


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Cleaning up polymerase chain reactions: DNA polymerases are found that copy two additional nucleotide letters (Z and P) in an expanded DNA alphabet to support six-letter polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Incorporated into external primers in a threefold multiplexed PCR, primers containing Z and P gave much cleaner results than standard multiplexed PCR.