Seeing O: Mn Kβ2,5 and Kβ′′ X-ray emission spectra arise from transitions from the ligand 2s and 2p shells of the metal complexes to the metal 1s levels. In biological systems, it is difficult to specifically probe the O and N ligands. This spectroscopic technique is used to study the O ligands of the Mn4Ca cluster that catalyzes photosynthetic water splitting and allows direct detection for the first time of the bridging oxo groups of Mn.
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