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Keywords:

  • cytokines;
  • glycolipids;
  • glycosylation;
  • Gram-positive bacteria;
  • total synthesis
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Mixed signals: The glycophospholipid 1, consisting of two cholinylphospho-GalNAc units, two 2-acetamino-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxygalactose rings, three glucose residues each with different linkages to other sugar units, and a ribitolphosphate residue, has been synthesized. Target 1 is recognized by the immune system, but not by the TLR-2 signaling receptor as previously postulated.