Guanine-rich sequences of DNA can assemble into tetrastranded structures known as G-quadruplexes. It has been suggested that these secondary DNA structures could be involved in the regulation of several key biological processes. In the human genome, guanine-rich sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes exist in the telomere as well as in promoter regions of certain oncogenes. The identification of these sequences as novel targets for the development of anticancer drugs has sparked great interest in the design of molecules that can interact with quadruplex DNA. While most reported quadruplex DNA binders are based on purely organic templates, numerous metal complexes have more recently been shown to interact effectively with this DNA secondary structure. This Review provides an overview of the important roles that metal complexes can play as quadruplex DNA binding molecules, highlighting the unique properties metals can confer to these molecules.