Valeric Biofuels: A Platform of Cellulosic Transportation Fuels


  • We are grateful to numerous colleagues for their invaluable contributions: K. L. von Hebel, R. Blessing, R. J. Haan, P. van den Brink, M. Nijkamp, and L. Domokos for their assistance in catalyst preparation and testing; J. Smith, A. Felix-Moore, and M. Beutler for fuel evaluation. We also wish to thank Z. Li and K. Self (Accelergy Corp.) for their assistance in catalyst screening.


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Fueling the future: Valeric esters can be produced by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose to levulinic acid, followed by hydrogenation to valeric acid and its subsequent esterification (see scheme). Valeric biofuels are fully compatible for blending with gasoline or diesel, and have passed a road trial of 250 000 km.