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Keywords:

  • biofuels;
  • biomass;
  • heterogeneous catalysis;
  • lignocellulose;
  • sustainable chemistry
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Fueling the future: Valeric esters can be produced by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose to levulinic acid, followed by hydrogenation to valeric acid and its subsequent esterification (see scheme). Valeric biofuels are fully compatible for blending with gasoline or diesel, and have passed a road trial of 250 000 km.