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Zintl Ions, Cage Compounds, and Intermetalloid Clusters of Group 14 and Group 15 Elements

Authors

  • Dr. Sandra Scharfe,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
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  • Dr. Florian Kraus,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
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  • Saskia Stegmaier,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
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  • Dr. Annette Schier,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
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  • Prof. Dr. Thomas F. Fässler

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
    • Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching/München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-289-13186
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

For a long time, Zintl ions of Group 14 and 15 elements were considered to be remarkable species domiciled in solid-state chemistry that have unexpected stoichiometries and fascinating structures, but were of limited relevance. The revival of Zintl ions was heralded by the observation that these species, preformed in solid-state Zintl phases, can be extracted from the lattice of the solids and dissolved in appropriate solvents, and thus become available as reactants and building blocks in solution chemistry. The recent upsurge of research activity in this fast-growing field has now provided a rich plethora of new compounds, for example by substitution of these Zintl ions with organic groups and organometallic fragments, by oxidative coupling reactions leading to dimers, oligomers, or polymers, or by the inclusion of metal atoms under formation of endohedral cluster species and intermetalloid compounds; some of these species have good prospects in applications in materials science. This Review presents the enormous progress that has been made in Zintl ion chemistry with an emphasis on syntheses, properties, structures, and theoretical treatments.

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