Through the pore: The N-terminal domain of the lethal factor of anthrax toxin was modified to probe protein translocation through the toxin pore. Replacing acidic residues with cysteic acid inhibited translocation, whereas introduction of D-amino acids or an alternating Lys–Glu sequence had no effect. The findings demonstrate independence of translocation from stereospecificity and strict sequence, and dependence on the charge state of acidic residues.
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