Upconverting Nanoparticles for Nanoscale Thermometry



Upconverting materials are capable of absorbing near-infrared light and converting it into short-wavelength luminescence. The efficiency of this remarkable effect is highly temperature dependent and thus can be used for temperature determination (thermometry) on a nanometer scale. All the upconverting materials discovered so far display several (mainly two) narrow emission bands, each of which has its own temperature dependence. The ratio of the intensity of two of these bands provides a referenced signal for optical sensing of temperature, for example inside cells.