Determination of Molecular Surface Structure, Composition, and Dynamics under Reaction Conditions at High Pressures and at the Solid–Liquid Interface

Authors

  • Prof. Gabor A. Somorjai,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
    2. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
    • Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
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  • Simon K. Beaumont,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
    2. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
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  • Selim Alayoglu

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
    2. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
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  • This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Abstract

In the last two decades, surface-science experiments and techniques have been developed to focus on obtaining molecular information under reaction conditions at high pressures (near or above 1 bar) and liquid interfaces. This Minireview describes the results of these studies obtained by surface-sensitive laser spectroscopies, scanning tunneling microscopy, and X-ray spectroscopies usually practiced at a synchrotron light source. The use of model surfaces, single crystals, and monodisperse nanoparticles with variable size (1–10 nm) and shape facilitates meaningful interpretation of the experimental data. These methods allow evaluation of the molecular structures of intermediates, oxidation states of metals, and mobility of adsorbants. New techniques that are likely to make major contributions to the investigation of surfaces under reaction conditions are also discussed.

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