Mixed-valence (MV) compounds are excellent model systems for the investigation of basic electron-transfer (ET) or charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. These issues are important in complex biophysical processes such as photosynthesis as well as in artificial electronic devices that are based on organic conjugated materials. Organic MV compounds are effective hole-transporting materials in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells, and photochromic windows. However, the importance of organic mixed-valence chemistry should not be seen in terms of the direct applicability of these species but the wealth of knowledge about ET phenomena that has been gained through their study. The great variety of organic redox centers and spacer moieties that may be combined in MV systems as well as the ongoing refinement of ET theories and methods of investigation prompted enormous interest in organic MV compounds in the last decades and show the huge potential of this class of compounds. The goal of this Review is to give an overview of the last decade in organic mixed valence chemistry and to elucidate its impact on modern functional materials chemistry.