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Keywords:

  • analytical methods;
  • electrochemistry;
  • exocytosis;
  • fluorescence spectroscopy;
  • microdevices
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

More transparency in bioanalysis: A microdevice based on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes allows simultaneous total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and amperometric measurements. Use of the device in the coupled optical and electrochemical detection of single exocytotic events is demonstrated with enterochromaffin BON cells (see picture).