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Kinetic Control of Metal–Organic Framework Crystallization Investigated by Time-Resolved In Situ X-Ray Scattering


  • We thank ESRF for provision of the beamtime at BM16 beamline, and we are grateful to Dr. François Fauth for his assistance during the use of BM16 beamline. J.G. gratefully acknowledges the Netherlands National Science Foundation (NWO) for a personal VENI grant.


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MOFs scattering away: The mechanism behind the multistep synthesis of two metal–organic frameworks sharing the same metal and organic precursors was revealed by in situ time-resolved small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Key factors governing the crystal assembly could be established (see picture: C gray, H white, N blue, O red, Al yellow, Cl green), including solvent, temperature, and precursor concentration.