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Direct Writing and Actuation of Three-Dimensionally Patterned Hydrogel Pads on Micropillar Supports

Authors

  • Lauren D. Zarzar,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA)
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  • Dr. Philseok Kim,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA)
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  • Dr. Mathias Kolle,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA)
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  • Prof. C. Jeffrey Brinker,

    1. Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, 1001 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (USA)
    2. Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering and Center for Micro-engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (USA)
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  • Prof. Joanna Aizenberg,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA)
    • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA)
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  • Dr. Bryan Kaehr

    Corresponding author
    1. Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, 1001 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (USA)
    2. Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering and Center for Micro-engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (USA)
    • Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, 1001 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (USA)
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  • We thank Dr. M. Aizenberg for discussions. This work was supported by the National Institute for Nano Engineering (NINE) program at Sandia National Laboratories; U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, grants DE-SC0005247 (responsive hydrogel actuation systems), DE-FG02-02-ER15368 (multiphoton lithography capabilities), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, grants 9550-10-1-0054 (hybrid materials and devices displaying a symbiotic relationship between the biotic and abiotic components), and FA9550-09-1-0669-DOD35CAP (responsive optics). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States DOE’s NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. B.K. gratefully acknowledges the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program for support. L.D.Z. thanks the Department of Defense for support through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program, as well as the National Science Foundation for support through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program. M.K. acknowledges the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation for support through a Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship.

Abstract

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Written response: Freely swelling, three-dimensionally patterned responsive hydrogels fabricated by multiphoton lithography on the tips of flexible pillars provide unique capabilities for the design of adaptive systems. The resulting materials have tunable actuation direction and angle, sensitive optical response, and precise spatial integration of gels with varying pH and temperature response (see picture; scale bar: 20 μm).

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