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Keywords:

  • cell-free expression;
  • membrane proteins;
  • NMR spectroscopy;
  • structural biology
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A mastered challenge: The recent solution structures of seven-transmembrane proteins, in particular of proteorhodopsin, have been reported. The structures are a major advance in structural biology and were determined based on experimental restrains derived from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs), and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs, see picture).