Human influenza viruses are proposed to recognize sialic acids (pink diamonds) on glycans extended with poly-LacNAc chains (LacNAc=(yellow circle+blue square)). N- and O-linked glycans were extended with different poly-LacNAc chains with α2-3- and α2-6-linked sialic acids recognized by human and avian influenza viruses, respectively. The specificity of recombinant hemagglutinins (receptors in green) was investigated by using glycan microarray technology.
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