The chemical synthesis of proteins from unprotected peptide segments uses KAHA ligation with 5-oxaproline, which is incorporated readily into peptides by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Ligation of such protein segments in aqueous buffers with an α-ketoacid peptide gives an α-homoserine residue at the ligation site. The new ligation is used for the synthesis of two proteins, prokaryotic-ubiquitin like protein (Pup) and probable cold shock protein A (cspA; see scheme).
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