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Keywords:

  • charge transfer;
  • photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • polymers;
  • surface chemistry;
  • time-resolved spectroscopy
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What's the charge? X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the charge state and dynamics of charge build-up and decay on a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The film is initially negatively charged to around −2 V and becomes progressively positively charged during the course of the XPS analysis.