• cross-linkers;
  • dimerizers;
  • protein–protein interactions;
  • small molecules


The evaluation of protein function in the context of the whole cell is crucial for understanding of living systems. In this context, the identification and modulation of protein–protein interactions in and outside cells is of ample importance. Several methods have been developed in the past years to detect and/or actively induce protein–protein interactions in living cells. As a result, tools are now available to manipulate intracellular events by reversible or irreversible cross-linking of proteins in a specific manner. These techniques open many new doors and enable the dissection of complicated protein networks. Herein we describe which cross-linkers and inducers of dimerization are out there and how to make use of this great toolbox.