Optimized Use of Reversible Binding for Fast and Selective NMR Localization of Caged Xenon


  • This work has been supported by the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 242710 and the Human Frontier Science Program. The authors would like to thank Stefan Klippel for fruitful discussions regarding the dialysis tubing.


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The NMR signal of hyperpolarized 129Xe trapped in cryptophane cages in different solvents experiences different chemical shifts. An encoding method is presented that involves the optimal use of reversible Xe binding and efficiently uses hyperpolarization. This method is utilized in nanomolar imaging, subsecond imaging, and time-resolved studies while maintaining high spectral selectivity.