Occurrence of Difluorine F2 in Nature—In Situ Proof and Quantification by NMR Spectroscopy


  • J.S.a.d.G. and F.K. thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for an Emmy Noether and a Heisenberg fellowship, respectively. We kindly acknowledge the Dr.-Ing. Leonhard-Lorenz-Stiftung for funding the project, Solvay Fluor for the donation of F2, Schott AG for CaF2, Prof. H. G. Dill (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)) and B. Weber (Weiden (Germany)) for providing us helpful information on where to find fetid fluorite around Wölsendorf, E. Hartl (Freyung (Germany)) for the starting donation of fetid fluorite from Grube Maria, E. Schmidt (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) for his geological maps and geologist’s hammers, P. Woidy and S. A. Baer (TU München), for their help at the excavation sites, U. Madan-Singh (TU München) for her aid in obtaining the older literature, Prof. Dr. H. A. Gilg (TU München) for helpful discussions, Dr. C. Lierse von Gostomski and G. Grünewald (Radiochemistry Unit, TU München) for the measurement of γ spectra, and Dr. T. Hirata (Nippon Shokubai Co.) and A. Monassier (TU München) for the translation of Japanese and French manuscripts, respectively.


original image

The most reactive chemical element, F2, has been claimed not to occur in nature. First direct evidence from in situ NMR spectroscopy now proves that elemental F2 indeed occurs in nature as an occlusion in “antozonite” (right in the picture), a variant of fluorite (CaF2, left).