Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of the most straightforward applications of the so-called nanoplasmonics. This powerful molecular spectroscopy technique is based on the enhancement of the inelastic scattering from molecules located near nanostructured metallic surfaces when these are illuminated and surface plasmons are excited. The analytical applications of SERS are hindered when the Raman cross-section of the analyte is too low, which is often the case in inorganic molecular species. This problem is even more serious when atomic species are to be identified, since these cannot display a vibrational signal. Herein we discuss the recent advancements toward the SERS detection of small inorganic compounds, including both molecular and atomic species.