Electrochemical X-ray Photolithography


  • This work was supported in part by RF President Grant MK-7245.2012.3, by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant Nos. 11-03-12121 and 10-03-01014), by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant Nos. 16.513.11.3011, 16.512.11.2164, and 14.740.11.0256) and by M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Program of Development. We thank the personnel of the ID06 beamline and, in particular, C. Detlefs for his excellent support. The authors are grateful to G. A. Tsirlina and V. I. Feldman (Moscow State University) for numerous fruitful discussions and to D. I. Petukhov for help with experiments.


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Best of both worlds: Electrochemical X-ray photolithography combines the advantages of X-ray photolithography with the versatility of electrochemical processing. A proof-of-concept was carried out by electrochemical deposition of nickel under coherent X-ray illumination guided through a lithographic mask with a 4 micrometer pitch, resulting in formation of a nickel grating (see picture).