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A Common Diaryl Ether Intermediate for the Gram-Scale Synthesis of Oxazine and Xanthene Fluorophores


  • Financial support was provided by the NIH (GM090126, GM087519, GM091804). A.V.A. is supported by Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Medical Scientist Training Program (NIH T32 GM007367). We are grateful to Dr. D. Romanini for editing the manuscript, Prof. S. A. Snyder and R. L. Gonzalez for helpful discussions, and Prof. W. Min for graciously offering the use of his spectroscopy equipment.


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Common ground: Copper-catalyzed coupling reactions can be used for the high-yielding preparation of widely used oxazine and xanthene fluorophores from a common diaryl ether intermediate on a gram-scale (see scheme). This general approach may facilitate the future development of novel fluorophores and probes with unique properties.