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A Liposomal System Capable of Generating CO2 Bubbles to Induce Transient Cavitation, Lysosomal Rupturing, and Cell Necrosis

Authors

  • Min-Fan Chung,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Ko-Jie Chen,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Hsiang-Fa Liang,

    1. Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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  • Zi-Xian Liao,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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  • Wei-Tso Chia,

    1. Department of Orthopaedics, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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  • Prof. Younan Xia,

    Corresponding author
    1. The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332 (USA)
    • The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332 (USA)
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  • Prof. Hsing-Wen Sung

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
    • Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (ROC)
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  • This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Council (NSC 100-2120M-007-003), Taiwan (ROC).

Abstract

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Bubbling over: After endocytosis and intracellular trafficking to lysosomes, liposomes containing ammonium bicarbonate can be thermally triggered to generate CO2 bubbles (see scheme). These bubbles grow rapidly and collapse violently to induce transient cavitation, a process that can disrupt the lysosomal membrane and release lysosomal proteases, thus leading to cell necrosis.

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