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Keywords:

  • benzoquinone;
  • dye-sensitized solar cells;
  • hybrid electrolytes;
  • hydroquinone;
  • redox couples
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A hybrid electrolyte involving tetramethylammonium (TMA) hydroquinone/benzoquinone redox couple is formulated. This electrolyte is more transparent than the traditional I/I3 electrolyte and has negligible absorption in the visible region. Dye-sensitized solar cells using the hybrid electrolyte show higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. FTO=fluorine-doped tin oxide.