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Keywords:

  • activatable cell-penetrating peptides;
  • FRET;
  • peptides;
  • ratiometric imaging;
  • thrombin
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

In real time: Thrombin activation in vivo can be imaged in real time with ratiometric activatable cell penetrating peptides (RACPPs). RACPPs are designed to combine 1) dual-emission ratioing, 2) far red to infrared wavelengths for in vivo mammalian imaging, and 3) cleavage-dependent spatial localization. The most advanced RACPP uses norleucine (Nle)-TPRSFL as a linker that increases sensitivity to thrombin by about 90-fold (see figure).