These authors contributed equally to this work.
Ratiometric Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptides Provide Rapid In Vivo Readout of Thrombin Activation†
Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012
Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Volume 52, Issue 1, pages 325–330, January 2, 2013
How to Cite
Whitney, M., Savariar, E. N., Friedman, B., Levin, R. A., Crisp, J. L., Glasgow, H. L., Lefkowitz, R., Adams, S. R., Steinbach, P., Nashi, N., Nguyen, Q. T. and Tsien, R. Y. (2013), Ratiometric Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptides Provide Rapid In Vivo Readout of Thrombin Activation . Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52: 325–330. doi: 10.1002/anie.201205721
The authors would like to thank P. Arcaira, Q. Xiong, and L. Gross. This work was funded by the NIH R01CA158448 to R.Y.T., ICMIC-NCI P50-CA128346 career development grant to E.N.S., and the American Asthma Foundation.
- Issue published online: 20 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 1 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 18 JUL 2012
- NIH. Grant Number: R01CA158448
- ICMIC-NCI. Grant Number: P50-CA128346
- American Asthma Foundation
- activatable cell-penetrating peptides;
- ratiometric imaging;
In real time: Thrombin activation in vivo can be imaged in real time with ratiometric activatable cell penetrating peptides (RACPPs). RACPPs are designed to combine 1) dual-emission ratioing, 2) far red to infrared wavelengths for in vivo mammalian imaging, and 3) cleavage-dependent spatial localization. The most advanced RACPP uses norleucine (Nle)-TPRSFL as a linker that increases sensitivity to thrombin by about 90-fold (see figure).