A new age dawned when 22-year-old William Lawrence Bragg (see picture) realized that the observations of X-ray diffraction by a crystal can be interpreted very simply as arising from the reflection of the X-rays by planes of atoms in the crystal. In the 100 years since this insight X-ray diffraction has transformed chemistry, mineralogy, metallurgy, and, most recently, biology.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.