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Imaging Mass Spectrometry and Genome Mining Reveal Highly Antifungal Virulence Factor of Mushroom Soft Rot Pathogen

Authors

  • Katharina Graupner,

    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • Dr. Kirstin Scherlach,

    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • Tom Bretschneider,

    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • Dr. Gerald Lackner,

    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • Dr. Martin Roth,

    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Harald Gross,

    1. Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Christian Hertweck

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
    2. Friedrich Schiller University, Jena (Germany)
    • Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena (Germany)
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  • We thank A. Perner, F. Rhein, and H. Heinecke for MS and NMR measurements, N. Ueberschaar for GC-MS, M.-G. Schwinger, M. Ishida, C. Weigel, and H.-M. Dahse for bioactivity testing, G. Krauter, J. Schönemann, K. Willing, and M.-G. Schwinger for fermentations. We are grateful for financial support by the Pakt für Forschung und Innovation and the ILRS as part of the excellence graduate school Jena School for Microbial Communication (JSMC).

Abstract

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Caught in the act: Imaging mass spectrometry of a button mushroom (see picture) infected with the soft rot pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum in conjunction with genome mining revealed jagaricin as a highly antifungal virulence factor that is not produced under standard cultivation conditions. The structure of jagaricin was rigorously elucidated by a combination of physicochemical analyses, chemical derivatization, and bioinformatics.

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