Monitoring Gas Sensors at Work: Operando Raman–FTIR Study of Ethanol Detection by Indium Oxide


  • We thank Karl Kopp for technical support.


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Gas sensors at work: The mode of operation of metal-oxide gas sensors can be studied by simultaneous measurement of the sensor response, adsorbates, changes in the metal-oxide material, and gas-phase composition by operando Raman–FTIR spectroscopy. Depending on the gas environment and temperature, for EtOH sensing by In2O3, a correlation has been found between the sensor signal, presence of adsorbates, oxidation state of the sensor material, and intensity of surface hydroxy groups.