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Keywords:

  • carbon nanotubes;
  • energy storage;
  • graphene;
  • supercapacitors
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Maximized energy density: Controlled electrochemical charge injection (ECI) can be used for maximizing the energy density of supercapacitors (SCs). The electrode potential is tuned by the surface chemical structure of the electrode material to increase both the working voltage and the specific capacity of the SCs. As a result, the energy density of carbon SCs is significantly improved close to the level of lithium-ion batteries (see picture).