• Open Access

Correlating Metal Poisoning with Zeolite Deactivation in an Individual Catalyst Particle by Chemical and Phase-Sensitive X-ray Microscopy

Authors

  • Dr. Javier Ruiz-Martínez,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. Andrew M. Beale,

    Corresponding author
    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)
    • Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)

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  • Dr. Upakul Deka,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. Mathew G. O'Brien,

    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. Paul D. Quinn,

    1. Science Division, Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (UK)
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  • Dr. J. Fred W. Mosselmans,

    1. Science Division, Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (UK)
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  • Prof. Dr. Bert M. Weckhuysen

    Corresponding author
    1. Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)
    • Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (The Netherlands)

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  • B.M.W. and J.R.M. acknowledge ACTS-ASPECT and NWO (VENI) for funding. The authors thank Albemarle Catalysts for providing the FCC catalysts, Dr. I. Lezcano (Utrecht University) for help during the synchrotron-based experiments, and DUBBLE beamline in ESRF for the bulk XANES experiments. We thank Diamond Light Source for access to beamline I18 that contributed to the results presented herein.

Abstract

original image

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the main conversion process used in oil refineries. An X-ray microscopy method is used to show that metal poisoning and related structural changes in the zeolite active material lead to a non-uniform core–shell deactivation of FCC catalyst particles. The study links the detrimental effect of V and Ni poisoning with zeolite destruction and dealumination in a spatial manner within a single FCC catalyst particle.

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