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Nitroxyl Radicals for Studying Electron Transfer


  • L.W. thanks Harry Gray for stimulating discussions, and all of the authors are grateful to both Harry Gray and Jeff Warren for critical reading of the manuscript and for constructive comments and suggestions. We thank Israel Silman for valuable discussions while writing our responses to the referees and for editing the manuscript.


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Electron-transfer (ET) rates are measured by use of time-resolved EPR spectroscopy, involving photooxidation of nitroxyl radicals by a ruthenium bipyridyl complex. This permits acquisition of the fundamental characteristics of ET in solution. The method was used on two spin-labeled derivatives of bacteriorhodopsin, and is applicable to proteins, nucleic acids, and biological membranes.

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