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Keywords:

  • natural products;
  • neurological agents;
  • neurotoxins;
  • receptors;
  • star fruit
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Caramboxin: Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease are frequently intoxicated after ingesting star fruit. The main symptoms of this intoxication are named in the picture. Bioguided chemical procedures resulted in the discovery of caramboxin, which is a phenylalanine-like molecule that is responsible for intoxication. Functional experiments in vivo and in vitro point towards the glutamatergic ionotropic molecular actions of caramboxin, which explains its convulsant and neurodegenerative properties.