Surface-Metastable Phase-Initiated Seeding and Ostwald Ripening: A Facile Fluorine-Free Process towards Spherical Fluffy Core/Shell, Yolk/Shell, and Hollow Anatase Nanostructures

Authors

  • Lu Cao,

    1. Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
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  • Dr. Dehong Chen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
    • Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

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  • Prof. Rachel A. Caruso

    Corresponding author
    1. Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
    2. CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia)
    • Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

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  • This research was financially supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project (grant number DP110101346). L.C. acknowledges the support of an Australian Postgraduate Award and MMI-CSIRO PhD Materials Science Top-up. R.A.C. is a recipient of an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (grant number FT0990583). Dr. Simon Crawford is thanked for ultramicrotoming samples in preparation for TEM characterization. Dr. Xiaofei Duan and Mr David Parris are appreciated for acquiring XPS and XRD results, respectively. The Advanced Microscopy Facility and Surface and Chemical Analysis Network (SCAN) at the University of Melbourne are acknowledged for electron microscopy and XPS access, respectively.

Abstract

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Versatile synthetic method: Monodisperse anatase microspheres with various complex morphologies have been synthesized by using a versatile fluorine-free solvothermal process in the presence of ammonia. Unambiguous evidence related to surface seeding and a subsequent hollowing process revealed an Ostwald ripening evolution process.

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