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Keywords:

  • C-H functionalization;
  • indoles;
  • N-heterocyclic carbenes;
  • spiro compounds;
  • synthetic methods
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Aryl aldehyde activation: Oxidative activation of 2-methylindole-3-carboxaldehyde (I) through N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) organocatalysis generates heterocyclic ortho-quinodimethane (II) as a key intermediate. This intermediate then undergoes formal [4+2] cycloaddition with trifluoromethyl ketones or isatins to form polycyclic lactones containing a quaternary carbon center.