Metal nanoparticles (NPs) find widespread application as a result of their unique physical and chemical properties. NPs have generated considerable interest in catalysis and electrocatalysis, where they provide a high surface area to mass ratio and can be tailored to promote particular reaction pathways. The activity of NPs can be analyzed especially well using electrochemistry, which probes interfacial chemistry directly. In this Review, we discuss key issues related to the electrochemistry of NPs. We highlight model studies that demonstrate exceptional control over the NP shape and size, or mass-transport conditions, which can provide key insights into the behavior of ensembles of NPs. Particular focus is on the challenge of ultimately measuring reactions at individual NPs, and relating the response to their structure, which is leading to imaginative experiments that have an impact on electrochemistry in general as well as broader surface and colloid science.