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Hydrodeoxygenation of the Angelica Lactone Dimer, a Cellulose-Based Feedstock: Simple, High-Yield Synthesis of Branched C7–C10 Gasoline-like Hydrocarbons


  • Financial support to I.G. by the Department of Education of the Basque Government (“Programa Postdoctoral de Perfeccionamiento de Doctores”) is gratefully acknowledged. Paul Hrvatin is acknowledged for his technical support in product analysis.


Dehydration of biomass-derived levulinic acid under solid acid catalysis and treatment of the resulting angelica lactone with catalytic K2CO3 produces the angelica lactone dimer in excellent yield. This dimer serves as a novel feedstock for hydrodeoxygenation, which proceeds under relatively mild conditions with a combination of oxophilic metal and noble metal catalysts to yield branched C7–C10 hydrocarbons in the gasoline volatility range. Considering that levulinic acid is available in >80 % conversion from raw biomass, a field-to-tank yield of drop-in, cellulosic gasoline of >60 % is possible.