We thank the DFG (grant no. Wu 317/11) for financial support and Prof. Georg Krohne for his help with the TEM measurements.
Hierarchical Growth of Fluorescent Dye Aggregates in Water by Fusion of Segmented Nanostructures†
Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013
Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Volume 53, Issue 5, pages 1270–1274, January 27, 2014
How to Cite
Zhang, X., Görl, D., Stepanenko, V. and Würthner, F. (2014), Hierarchical Growth of Fluorescent Dye Aggregates in Water by Fusion of Segmented Nanostructures. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 53: 1270–1274. doi: 10.1002/anie.201308963
- Issue published online: 23 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Received: 14 OCT 2013
- DFG. Grant Number: Wu 317/11
Dye aggregates are becoming increasingly attractive for diverse applications, in particular as organic electronic and sensor materials. However, the growth processes of such aggregates from molecular to small assemblies up to nanostructures is still not properly understood, limiting the design of materials’ functional properties. Here we elucidate the supramolecular growth process for an outstanding class of functional dyes, perylene bisimides (PBIs), by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our studies reveal a sequential growth of amphiphilic PBI dyes from nanorods into nanoribbons in water by fusion and fission processes. More intriguingly, the fluorescence observed for higher hierarchical order nanoribbons was enhanced relative to that of nanorods. Our results provide insight into the relationship between molecular, morphological, and functional properties of self-assembled organic materials.