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Molecular Engineering of Push–Pull Porphyrin Dyes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Role of Benzene Spacers

Authors

  • Aswani Yella,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
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    • These authors contributed equally.

  • Chi-Lun Mai,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)
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    • These authors contributed equally.

  • Shaik M. Zakeeruddin,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
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  • Shu-Nung Chang,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)
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  • Chi-Hung Hsieh,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)
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  • Chen-Yu Yeh,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)
    • Chen-Yu Yeh, Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)

      Michael Grätzel, Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

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  • Michael Grätzel

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
    • Chen-Yu Yeh, Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (Taiwan)

      Michael Grätzel, Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

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  • M.G. thanks the European Research Council for an Advanced Research Grant (ARG 247404) funded under the “MESOLIGHT” project and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme for funding under the “GLOBASOL” project. C.-Y.Y. is grateful for the financial support of the National Science Council of Taiwan and the Ministry of Education of Taiwan.

Abstract

Porphyrins have drawn much attention as sensitizers owing to the large absorption coefficients of their Soret and Q bands in the visible region. In a donor and acceptor zinc porphyrin we applied a new strategy of introducing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) as a π-conjugated linker between the anchoring group and the porphyrin chromophore to broaden the absorption spectra to fill the valley between the Soret and Q bands. With this novel approach, we observed 12.75 % power-conversion efficiency under simulated one-sun illumination (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm−2). In this study, we showed the importance of introducing the phenyl group as a spacer between the BTD and the zinc porphyrin in achieving high power-conversion efficiencies. Time-resolved fluorescence, transient-photocurrent-decay, and transient-photovoltage-decay measurements were employed to determine the electron-injection dynamics and the lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers.

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