Room-Temperature Carbide-Derived Carbon Synthesis by Electrochemical Etching of MAX Phases

Authors

  • Maria R. Lukatskaya,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
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  • Joseph Halim,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
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  • Boris Dyatkin,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
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  • Michael Naguib,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
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  • Yulia S. Buranova,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
    2. Current address: Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (Germany)
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  • Prof. Michel W. Barsoum,

    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
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  • Prof. Yury Gogotsi

    Corresponding author
    1. A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)
    • A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (USA)===

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  • This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award no. ER46473.

Abstract

Porous carbons are widely used in energy storage and gas separation applications, but their synthesis always involves high temperatures. Herein we electrochemically selectively extract, at ambient temperature, the metal atoms from the ternary layered carbides, Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC and Ti3SiC2 (MAX phases). The result is a predominantly amorphous carbide-derived carbon, with a narrow distribution of micropores. The latter is produced by placing the carbides in HF, HCl or NaCl solutions and applying anodic potentials. The pores that form when Ti3AlC2 is etched in dilute HF are around 0.5 nm in diameter. This approach forgoes energy-intensive thermal treatments and presents a novel method for developing carbons with finely tuned pores for a variety of applications, such as supercapacitor, battery electrodes or CO2 capture.

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