Sustainable Electrical Energy Storage through the Ferrocene/Ferrocenium Redox Reaction in Aprotic Electrolyte

Authors

  • Dr. Yu Zhao,

    1. Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Yu Ding,

    1. Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Dr. Jie Song,

    1. Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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  • Dr. Gang Li,

    1. Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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  • Prof. Guangbin Dong,

    1. Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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  • Prof. John B. Goodenough,

    1. Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
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  • Prof. Guihua Yu

    Corresponding author
    1. Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)
    • Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (USA)

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  • G.Y. acknowledges the financial support of the faculty start-up grant from the University of Texas at Austin and The Welch Foundation grant (F 1861). J.B.G. acknowledges the support by the Robert A. Welch Foundation of Houston, Texas. G.D. acknowledges the Welch Foundation grant (F 1781).

Abstract

The large-scale, cost-effective storage of electrical energy obtained from the growing deployment of wind and solar power is critically needed for the integration into the grid of these renewable energy sources. Rechargeable batteries having a redox-flow cathode represent a viable solution for either a Li-ion or a Na-ion battery provided a suitable low-cost redox molecule soluble in an aprotic electrolyte can be identified that is stable for repeated cycling and does not cross the separator membrane to the anode. Here we demonstrate an environmentally friendly, low-cost ferrocene/ferrocenium molecular redox couple that shows about 95 % energy efficiency and about 90 % capacity retention after 250 full charge/discharge cycles.

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