Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 11

November 1990

Volume 29, Issue 11

Pages 1177–1370

Currently known as: Angewandte Chemie International Edition

    1. Cover Picture (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 11/1990)

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199011771

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      The cover picture shows an artistically refined computer graphic of the three-dimensional structure of verapamil, α-isopropyl-α-[(N-methyl-N-homoveratryl)-γ-aminopropyl]-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetonitrile. This drug, which was developed in the research laboratories of Knoll AG, part of the BASF group, is used for treating high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and certain types of heart-rhythm disturbances. When it was introduced for therapeutic use in 1963, Verapamil was the first calcium antagonist. Since then, other calcium antagonists have been found. They act by inhibiting the How of calcium ions into the cells of the heart muscle and thus improving the efficiency of its activity. They are also able to prevent cell damage when the blood supply to the heart is deficient, for example, during heart attacks. The picture represents the ideal way of developing a drug: starting from the desired biological action, scientists in a wide variety of disciplines employ the most up-to-date chemical, biological, and molecular-modeling methods in the rational design of an active substance. Indeed, this high degree of cooperation between disciplines applies very generally to most areas of basic and, especially, applied research. In seeking an innovative solution to a problem, applied research must take into consideration, on the one hand, the results of basic research and. on the other, the specific requirements of the market and a knowledge of the business. BASF celebrated its 125th anniversary with a symposium entitled “Chemistry for the Future—State of the Art and Perspectives”. This month's issue is based on 15 of the 18 lectures. It focuses on the future prospects of classical and interdisciplinary research in chemistry with particular emphasis on close cooperation between basic and applied research.

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Book Reviews
    1. Chemistry for the Future—State of the Art and Perspectives (pages 1177–1188)

      Prof. Dr. Hans-Jürgen Quadbeck-Seeger

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199011773

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      From the production of indigo to the synthesis of ammonia to the biotechnological preparation of tumor necrosis factor, the 125 years of research and development at BASF have been marked by success. However, the available resources and the environment in which this work has been carried out have undergone constant change. During the last twenty years, in particular, the chemical industry has witnessed a virtual flood of regulatory laws. The dramatic increase in the number of laws and regulations in Germany is shown graphically on the right. The message of this article is that only intensive research and development in academic laboratories, government research institutes, and industry can solve many of the problems facing our civilization.

    2. The Integrating Effect of the Research Policy of the European Communities (pages 1189–1196)

      Dr. Karl-Heinz Narjes

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199011891

      Annually, the European Community budgets 1.5 billion Ecu's—1 Ecu is equal to Approximately 2.06 DM—to research and development. This amount is expected to increase to 2 billion Ecu is by 1992/93. This article explains how this money is used. It discusses the historical development of the European Community policy in this area and also considers the perspectives offered by the dramatic changes affecting Europe in the 1990s.

    3. Misconceptions on Pollution and the Causes of Cancer (pages 1197–1208)

      Prof. Bruce N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199011971

      The assessment of the risks posed by naturally occurring and synthetic carcinogens should take into consideration the fact that the exposure to natural carcinogens in food is usually much greater than that to synthetic carcinogens in food, drinking water, and the environment. Furthermore, most natural detoxification mechanisms are so general that they frequently do not differentiate between naturally occurring and synthetic toxins. These are but two aspects of the modern health risks with which this article is concerned.

    4. What Will Chemistry Do in the Next Twenty Years? (pages 1209–1218)

      Prof. George Whitesides

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012091

      The future of chemistry will be dictated not only by the needs of society but also by the development of new ideas in basic research. This article examines four areas of society in which chemistry will be called upon to offer solutions to problems—national security, health care, the environment, and energy—and looks at four areas in which basic research could lead to important progress—the chemistry of materials, biological chemistry, computation, and the exploration of chemical phenomena on very small, very large, and very fast scales.

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      Elementary Steps in Heterogeneous Catalysis (pages 1219–1227)

      Prof. Dr. Gerhard Ertl

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012191

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      Single-crystal surfaces as model systems—the canning tunneling microscope and electron-spectroscopic methods now allow the individual steps of heterogeneous catalysis to be studied in detail. The success of this approach, despite the large differences in experimental conditions, is exemplified by the catalytic synthesis of ammonia. NH3 yields calculated from such model studies are in excellent agreement with the yields obtained industrially (see diagram).

    6. What Does the Chemical Industry Expect from Physical and Industrial Chemistry? (pages 1228–1234)

      Dr. Wolfgang Jentzsch

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012281

      The systematic optimization of raw materials, energy consumption, and product yields is a constant challenge in the production of basic chemicals and intermediates. In contrast to the immediate products, the production processes exhibit “life cycles” and strongly determine the profitability of downstream products. Accordingly, the improvement of individual steps of a production process is often more important than the development of a new process. Successful solutions to such problems require an interdisciplinary team of experts with the ability and willingness to develop new approaches to problem solving; this is the prime objective of university education with respect to the future needs of society.

    7. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Reactors—Development and Implementation of Novel Technologies (pages 1235–1245)

      Prof. Dr. Yuri Shaevich Matros

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012351

      What is the most efficient way to operate a chemical reactor? This question is of central importance in the industrial production of chemicals as well as in, for example, the treatment of effluent gases. Mathematical modeling helps to provide an answer. For instance, such an analysis established that the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde can best be carried out in a reactor designed for a nonstationary process and that reverse-flow reactors are often useful for other reactions. However, mathematical modeling does not solve the problems confronted on going from laboratory-scale experiment to industrial-scale production.

    8. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design (pages 1246–1255)

      Prof. John M. Prausnitz

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012461

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      The best pore size for separation of gases, the chemical potentials of the components of a nonideal solution (which allow, for example, determination of the flash temperature), promising substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons—these are but three examples of what molecular thermodynamics offers. The diagram shows that the flash temperatures calculated for a methanol—heptane mixture assuming ideal-solution behavior (---) would lead to wrong and dangerous conclusions, whereas the results of molecular thermodynamics (—) agree well with experiment (•).

    9. Advanced Materials: Trends and Possibilities in Liquid Crystalline Polymers (pages 1256–1261)

      Prof. Dr. James Economy

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012561

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      Two categories of polymers have attracted increasing attention in recent years: polymers used in very small amounts to fulfill critical needs as part of a device system and high-performance engineering polymers whose mechanical and thermal properties make them suitable for structural applications. Liquid crystalline copolyesters are discussed in detail in this article with particular focus on their microstructures (see picture below).

    10. Perspectives in the Development of High-Temperature Polymers (pages 1262–1268)

      Dr. Paul M. Hergenrother

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012621

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      Polyimides and poly(aryl ethers) are the most important thermostable polymers. They were initially developed for primary use in aircraft and space vehicles as well as in the electronics industry. The formula for LARC-CPI is shown below. This relatively new polyimide exhibits outstanding chemical stability and high mechanical strength and it is stable for long periods at temperatures above 300 °C in the air.

    11. Specific Interactions of Proteins with Functional Lipid Monolayers—Ways of Simulating Biomembrane Processes (pages 1269–1285)

      Dr. Michael Ahlers, Dipl.-Chem. Wolfgang Müller, Dipl.-Chem. Anke Reichert, Prof. Dr. Helmut Ringsdorf and Dipl.-Chem. Joachim Venzmer

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012691

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      Affinity chromatography and biosensors are two potential areas of application of the research described in this article. This work lies at the interface of macromolecular chemistry and biochemistry. The picture below shows ordered supramolecular systems that can be used to simulate membrane processes.

    12. Organic Synthesis in the Age of Computers (pages 1286–1295)

      Prof. James B. Hendrickson

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012861

      The use of computers for synthetic planning is a fascinating challenge. Can the creativity, fantasy, and intuition of the chemist be replaced or augmented by the computer? The SYNGEN program described here allows the user to search easily and systematically for ideal convergent syntheses in which functional groups are taken into consideration from the very beginning. In practice, the availability and price of the starting materials, as well as the number of reaction steps, are the decisive criteria in selecting a synthetic route.

    13. Catalytic Antibodies: A New Class of Transition-State Analogues Used to Elicit Hydrolytic Antibodies (pages 1296–1303)

      Kevan M. Shokat, Marcia K. Ko, Dr. Thomas S. Scanlan, Dr. Lynn Kochersperger, Shirlee Yonkovich, Dr. Suvit Thaisrivongs and Prof. Peter G. Schultz

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199012961

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      The design and preparation of selective catalysts are important goals for chemists and biologists. A number, of new strategies are available for the development of catalysts: for example, the derivatization of synthetic host compounds, the chemical modification and site-specific mutagenesis of enzymes, and the use of organic solvents to modify natural enzyme activities. Since 1986, several laboratories have exploited the immune system to generate antibodies capable of catalyzing a wide range of chemical transformations. For instance, antibodies against the racemic heptanoic acid 1–a statine-like transition-state analogue–have been generated and found to catalyze the hydrolysis of acetate 2 and carbonate 3.

    14. Perspectives in Supramolecular Chemistry—From Molecular Recognition towards Molecular Information Processing and Self-Organization (pages 1304–1319)

      Prof. Jean-Marie Lehn

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199013041

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      The self-assembly of defined supramolecular systems is a new development in supramolecular chemistry. For example, molecular recognition leads to the formation of mesogenic supermolecules from nonmesogenic complementary components such as derivatives of 2,6-diaminopyridine and uracil bearing long aliphatic chains. Another fascinating development–the synthesis of deoxyri-bonucleohelicates (DNH), “inside-out” DNA analogues–is also described in detail.

    15. Organic Synthesis—Where now? (pages 1320–1367)

      Prof. Dr. Dieter Seebach

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.199013201

      Organic chemistry is not a pure science, despite claims to the contrary. However, neither is it stagnating nor is it in decline. Instead, it is turning its attention to ever more challenging goals and to the fulfillment of old dreams. The author discusses important developments of the past 25 years and attempts to make a prognosis for the future. Examples of progress include the synthesis of inhibitors for all important enzymes, the production of monoclonal antibodies by gene technology for use in industry, and the application of new transition-metal organometallics as “wonder” reagents. Furthermore, synthetic methodology will be increasingly directed toward the search for catalytic and enantioselective reactions.

  2. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Book Reviews